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Genus Calanthe

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe R.Br., Edwards's Bot Reg. (1821) sub t. 573

Synonyms:

  • Genus Alismorchis Thouars, Hist. Orchid. (1822) Tabl. Esp. 1
  • Genus Alismorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 19 (1809) 318
  • Genus Amblyglottis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 369
  • Genus Aulostylis Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1 (1912) 392
  • Genus Calanthidium Pfitzer in Engl. & Prantl, Naturl. Pflanzenfam. 2
  • Genus Centrosis Thouars, Hist. Orchid. (1822) t. 35
  • Genus Ghiesbreghtia A.Rich. & Galeotti, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot.
  • Genus Limatodis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 375
  • Genus Paracalanthe Kudo, J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 2 (1930) 235
  • Genus Preptanthe Rchb.f., Fl. Serres Jard. Eur. 8 (1852-53) 245
  • Genus Styloglossum Breda, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Asclep. (13) (1829) t. (7)
  • Genus Zoduba Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nep. (1825) 30

Sympodial terrestrial or epiphytic plants with or without distinct rhizomes. Stem very short or rarely elongated, or with fat pseudobulbs consisting of one internode. Leaves few to several, spirally arranged or in two rows, sheathing at the base, glabrous or sometimes pubescent, plicate, deciduous or persistent, convolute, thin-textured. Inflorescence a lateral or basal, few- to many-flowered raceme. Flowers small to rather large, resupinate, often showy. Sepals free. Petals free, often fairly similar to the dorsal sepal, but sometimes rather different in shape. Lip adnate to the column along the entire length of the latter, usually with a distinct spur, rarely spur absent. Column-foot absent. Pollinia 8, solid, caudicles present, stipe absent, viscidium present.

Species present in New Guinea:

Calanthe aceras
Calanthe arfakana
Calanthe aruank
Calanthe bicalcarata
Calanthe bicalcarata var. depressa
Calanthe camptoceras
Calanthe caulescens
Calanthe chrysoleuca
Calanthe coiloglossa
Calanthe cremeoviridis
Calanthe cruciata
Calanthe englishii
Calanthe finisterrae
Calanthe fissa
Calanthe fragrans
Calanthe geelvinkensis
Calanthe hololeuca
Calanthe inflata
Calanthe kaniensis
Calanthe labellicauda
Calanthe leucosceptrum
Calanthe leucosceptrum var. bisubulifera
Calanthe longifolia
Calanthe lutiviridis
Calanthe micrantha
Calanthe muelleri
Calanthe papuana
Calanthe parvilabris
Calanthe pullei
Calanthe reflexilabris
Calanthe rhodochila
Calanthe rhodochila var. reconditiflora
Calanthe spathoglottoides
Calanthe stenophylla
Calanthe torricellensis
Calanthe triplicata
Calanthe truncata
Calanthe ventilabrum
Calanthe versteegii
Calanthe vestita
Calanthe villosa
Calanthe werneri


Central America (one species), tropical and southern Africa, Madagascar, throughout tropical Asia, China and Japan, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Pacific islands, east to Tahiti. About 100 species; in New Guinea c. 30 species.

Mainly terrestrial in rain forest; also epiphytic on tree trunks and major branches. Found both in the lowlands and in the mountains.

  • Subfamily Epidendroideae
  • Tribe Undetermined
  • Subtribe Collabiinae
  • Genus Calanthe
  • Thomas, S.1999. Calanthe section Rhodochilus (Orchidaceae) from New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and the Moluccas. Blumea 44: 25-36.

The often attractive flowers of this genus are almost always distinctly spurred. They are of a more delicate consistency than those of most orchids. Phaius and Cephalantheropsis (the latter not found in New Guinea) are related genera. As in those genera all parts of the plant (including the flowers) turn bluish when bruised. Some New Guinea species deviate considerably from the type of Calanthe commonly seen in cultivation, e.g. Calanthe caulescens, Calanthe rhodochila and Calanthe versteegii. The last mentioned is so unusual that it was even described as a member of the genus Giulianettia (now included in Glomera).

The following sections accommodate the New Guinea species of Calanthe:

Preptanthe - plants with large, exposed pseudobulbs and deciduous leaves, lip spurred;
Rhodochilus - plants with short or elongated stems, a simple or almost simple spurred lip with relatively small blade, with persistent floral bracts;
Calanthe - plants with very short stems, lip spurred, usually distinctly lobed, with persistent floral bracts;
Styloglossum - plants with very short stems, lip spurred, not or weakly lobed, with deciduous floral bracts;
Aceratochilus - plants with very short stems, lip not spurred, not or weakly lobed, with deciduous floral bracts.


Genus Calanthe in New Guinea contains xx species and xx varieties:

Calanthe aceras
Calanthe aquamarina
Calanthe arfakana
Calanthe aruank
Calanthe bicalcarata
Calanthe bicalcarata var. depressa
Calanthe camptoceras
Calanthe caulescens
Calanthe chrysoleuca
Calanthe coiloglossa
Calanthe cremeoviridis
Calanthe cruciata
Calanthe englishii
Calanthe finisterrae
Calanthe fissa
Calanthe fragrans
Calanthe geelvinkensis
Calanthe hololeuca
Calanthe inflata
Calanthe kaniensis
Calanthe labellicauda
Calanthe leucosceptrum
Calanthe leucosceptrum var. bisubulifera
Calanthe longifolia
Calanthe lutiviridis
Calanthe micrantha
Calanthe muelleri
Calanthe papuana
Calanthe parvilabris
Calanthe pullei
Calanthe reflexilabris
Calanthe rhodochila
Calanthe rhodochila var. reconditiflora
Calanthe spathoglottoides
Calanthe stenophylla
Calanthe torricellensis
Calanthe triplicata
Calanthe truncata
Calanthe ventilabrum
Calanthe versteegii
Calanthe vestita
Calanthe villosa
Calanthe werneri



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Genus Calanthe

Calanthe aceras Schltr., flowers, photo T. M. Reeve, based on Reeve 2133

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe arfakana J.J.Sm., photo G. Stocker

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe caulescens J.J.Sm., habit (in situ), photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (9/79, PNG, Mt. Rongo)

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe leucosceptrum Schltr., in situ, photo T. M. Reeve, based on Reeve 5254

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe micrantha Schltr., inflorescence, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (2/83, PNG, Mt. Gahavisuka)

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe rhodochila Schltr. var. reconditiflora (J.J.Sm.) S.Thomas, inflorescence, photo J. Comber, based on Highland Orchid Collection, Laiagam

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames, inflorescence, photo J. Meijvogel, Leiden cult. 28004, from Java

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe vestita Lindl., flower, photo T. M. Reeve, based on Reeve PNGH 702

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames, drawing N.H.S. Howcroft 95, based on Howcroft cult., from Bulolo

Genus Calanthe

Calanthe cremeoviridis J.J.Wood, drawing N.H.S. Howcroft 94, based on Howcroft cult., from Bulolo