Genus Taeniophyllum

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 355

Synonyms:

  • Genus Alwisia Thw. ex Lindl., J. Linn. Soc.
  • Genus Ankylocheilos Summerh., Bot. Mus. Leafl. 11 (1943) 168
  • Genus Cryptorchis Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 7 (1893) 118

Leafless monopodial epiphytes. Stem very short. Inflorescence lateral from the stem, a few- to many-flowered raceme, with the flowers opening in succession; peduncle sometimes hairy, rachis usually very short, sometimes hairy or warty. Flowers minute to medium-sized, often ephemeral, resupinate or not. Sepals all three connate or free. Petals connate to the sepals or free, usually similar to the dorsal sepal, but often somewhat narrower. Lip spurred, not mobile. Column-foot absent. Rostellum very short to long and beak-like. Pollinia 4, solid, caudicles absent, stipe present, viscidium present.


Genus Taeniophyllum is distributed in Tropical Africa (1 species), Sri Lanka, tropical continental Asia, Taiwan, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Australia, east to Tahiti. About 170 species; in New Guinea c. 90 known species, but many more species probably remain to be discovered.

Epiphytes in lowland and montane forest, often in the canopy on thin twigs; also on solitary trees, fruit-trees, large shrubs (even in city gardens), etc.

  • Subfamily Epidendroideae
  • Tribe Vandeae
  • Subtribe Aeridinae
  • Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum is the largest and most diverse genus among the leafless monopodial orchids, which include genera like Chiloschista (Asia), Dendrophyllax (America), and Microcoelia (Africa and Madagascar). In these genera the plants consist of nothing but a radiating cluster of roots; the stem is usually very short. Normal leaves are sometimes developed but short-lived. In New Guinea only the genera Taeniophyllum show this type of growth, although the genus Chiloschista may be expected to occur here as well, since it is found in both the Moluccas and Australia. Microtatorchis differs from Taeniophyllum in having two instead of four pollinia, otherwise it can hardly be distinguished from Taeniophyllum section Sepalocodon. Most of the species of Taeniophyllum in New Guinea are very poorly known and are hardly ever found in cultivation. We have been unable to identify several of the species that were available to us in the form of photographs or specimens and we must assume that these represent undescribed taxa. Considering that these plants are difficult to spot in the field and moreover have short-lived flowers it is likely that many species still await discovery. Some of the New Guinea members of this genus have broad, ribbon-like flattened roots and are by far the largest of this type of orchid in the world. Taeniophyllum clearly has its main area of diversity in New Guinea, where the range in size and shape of the flowers and the number of species are far greater than elsewhere.

Schlechter divided the genus into six sections, which are at least useful into dividing this rather large genus into manageable groups. We must await molecular studies to assess the phylogeny of the genus. Since the type species of Taeniophyllum (T. obtusum Blume) belongs to Schlechter's section Trachyrhachis this should now be called Taeniophyllum.


Genus Taeniophyllum in New Guinea contains 7 sections:

Brachyanthera
Loboglossum
Microtatorchis
Rhynchanthera
Sepalocodon
Taeniophyllum
Trachylepus


KEY TO THE SECTIONS OF THE GENUS TAENIOPHYLLUM

IN PREPARATION (The species of Microtatorchis need to be added!)

1a. Pollinia 2 == section Microtatorchis
1b. Pollinia 4 == 2

2a Ovary hairy == section Trachylepus
2b Ovary glabrous == 3

3a Sepals connate, at least at the base; tip of the lip often with a backwards-pointing tooth == section Sepalocodon
3b Sepals free; tip of the lip without a backwards-pointing tooth == 4

4a Inflorescence very short, almost without peduncle; rachis more or less warty == section Taeniophyllum (synonyms: sect. Trachyrachis, sect. Liberosepalum)
4b Inflorescence elongated, with a well-developed peduncle; rachis glabrous == 5

5a Lip distinctly 3-lobed == section Loboglossum
5b Lip entire == 6

6a Rostellum elongated, beak-like == section Rhynchanthera
6b Rostellum very short == section Brachyanthera


Genus Taeniophyllum in New Guinea contains 93 apecies::

Taeniophyllum album
Taeniophyllum apiculatum
Taeniophyllum arachnites
Taeniophyllum asperatum
Taeniophyllum aureum
Taeniophyllum brachypus
Taeniophyllum breviscapum
Taeniophyllum brunnescens
Taeniophyllum canaliculatum
Taeniophyllum cardiophorum
Taeniophyllum carnosiflorum
Taeniophyllum clavatum
Taeniophyllum clavicalcar
Taeniophyllum cochleare
Taeniophyllum coiloglossum
Taeniophyllum concavum
Taeniophyllum conoceras
Taeniophyllum crenatum
Taeniophyllum cucullatum
Taeniophyllum cycloglossum
Taeniophyllum cylindrocentrum
Taeniophyllum cymboglossum
Taeniophyllum dentilobum
Taeniophyllum dischorense
Taeniophyllum engae
Taeniophyllum erinaceum
Taeniophyllum excavatum
Taeniophyllum exotrachys
Taeniophyllum ferox
Taeniophyllum filiforme
Taeniophyllum fimbriatum
Taeniophyllum foliatum
Taeniophyllum fragrans
Taeniophyllum giriwoense
Taeniophyllum grandiflorum
Taeniophyllum hygrophilum
Taeniophyllum iboense
Taeniophyllum jadunae
Taeniophyllum kaniense
Taeniophyllum kenejianum
Taeniophyllum keysseri
Taeniophyllum kompsopus
Taeniophyllum lamprorhizum
Taeniophyllum latipetalum
Taeniophyllum ledermannii
Taeniophyllum leptorhizum
Taeniophyllum leucanthum
Taeniophyllum macranthum
Taeniophyllum macrorhynchum
Taeniophyllum macrotaenium
Taeniophyllum malianum
Taeniophyllum mangiferae
Taeniophyllum manubrioliferum
Taeniophyllum maximum
Taeniophyllum minutiflorum
Taeniophyllum muricatum
Taeniophyllum neopommeranicum
Taeniophyllum nephrophorum
Taeniophyllum oblongum
Taeniophyllum orbiculare
Taeniophyllum orthorhynchum
Taeniophyllum ovale
Taeniophyllum pachyacris
Taeniophyllum pallidum
Taeniophyllum palmicola
Taeniophyllum paludosum
Taeniophyllum pectiniferum
Taeniophyllum phaeanthum
Taeniophyllum physodes
Taeniophyllum platyrhizum
Taeniophyllum pleistorhizum
Taeniophyllum proboscideum
Taeniophyllum pubicarpum
Taeniophyllum pulvinatum
Taeniophyllum quadratum
Taeniophyllum quaquaversum
Taeniophyllum recurvirostrum
Taeniophyllum rhomboglossum
Taeniophyllum robustum
Taeniophyllum schlechteri
Taeniophyllum setipes
Taeniophyllum singulare
Taeniophyllum stenosepalum
Taeniophyllum stipulaceum
Taeniophyllum subtrilobum
Taeniophyllum tamianum
Taeniophyllum toranum
Taeniophyllum torricellense
Taeniophyllum trichopus
Taeniophyllum trilobum
Taeniophyllum tripulvinatum
Taeniophyllum xerophilum


Sponsored Ads

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum Schuit. & de Vogel, , flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031981

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum antennatum Schuit. & de Vogel, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031981

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum Schuit. & de Vogel, root top, from below, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031981

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum glandulosum Blume aff., habit, photo A. Schuiteman, based on Leiden cult. 20032231

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum grandiflorum Schltr. aff., flowers, photo P. O'Byrne, based on O'Byrne T040

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum latipetalum Schltr. aff., plant habit, oblique lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, from Wild Dog Prospecting area, E. New Britain

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum malianum Schltr. aff., flowers, photo P. O'Byrne, based on O'Byrne T030

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum robustum Schltr. aff., habit (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum robustum Schltr. aff, flower (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum robustum Schltr. aff., flower detail (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum robustum Schltr. aff., column (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Loboglossum, flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20030488

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Loboglossum, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20030488

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Loboglossum, flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20030488

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Loboglossum, flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20030488

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Loboglossum, flower (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3102

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Loboglossum, detail of flower (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3102

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Rhynchanthera, habit, photo P. O'Byrne, based on O'Byrne T050

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Sepalocodon, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20032231

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Sepalocodon, flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20032231

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Sepalocodon, flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20032231

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniopyllum sp. sect. Sepalocodon, habit, photo J.B. Comber, from PNG, Sogeri

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Trachylepus, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031894

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Trachylepus, flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031894

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. nov. sect. Trachylepus, flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031894

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Trachylepus, plant habit, on tree buttress, photo E.F. de Vogel, from PNG, Woitape, c. 2400 m

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Trachylepus, plant in situ, photo E.F. de Vogel, from PNG, Woitape, c. 2500 m

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Trachylepus, habit (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054B

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Trachylepus, flower (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054B

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Trachylepus, flower, lateral view (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054B

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp. sect. Trachylepus, column and lip (stereo image), photo P. Jongejan, based on Jongejan 3054B

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum, habit (on Gardenia shrub in garden), photo N.E.G. Cruttwell (9/83, PNG, Uritoka)

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., habit, photo A. Schuiteman, based on Yumte 276

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., flower, lateral view, photo A. Schuiteman, based on Yumte 276

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031625

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., flowers, oblique front view and lateral view from below, photo E.F. de Vogel, based on Leiden cult. 20031625

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., habit, photo A. Schuiteman, based on Leiden cult. 20020189

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., flower, photo A. Schuiteman, based on Leiden cult. 20020189

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., habit (in situ), photo N.E.G. Cruttwell (1/83, PNG, Mt. Gahavisuka)

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., flower, photo G. Stocker, based on

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., habit, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell (6/72, PNG, Agaun)

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum sp., habit, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell (7/73, PNG, Mt. Gamatawa)

Genus Taeniophyllum

Taeniophyllum macranthum Schltr., habit and floral analysis, drawing N.H.S. Howcroft 77, from Pindiu