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Genus Liparis

Genus Liparis

Liparis Rich., Orchid. Europ. Annot. (1817) 21, 30, 38

Synonyms:

  • Genus Alatiliparis Marg. & Szlach., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 38 (2001) 78
  • Genus Alipsa Hoffsgg., Verzeichn. Orchid. (1842) 20
  • Genus Anistylis Raf., Neogenyton (1825) 4
  • Genus Cestichis Thouars, Hist. Orchid. (1822) t. 90
  • Genus Distichis Lindl., Veg. Kingd.
  • Genus Disticholiparis Marg. & Szlach., Orchidee 55 (2004) 175
  • Genus Diteilis Raf., Herb. Raf. (1833) 73
  • Genus Empusa Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. (1824) sub t. 825
  • Genus Iebine Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4 (1836) 39
  • Genus Leptorchis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 19 (1809) 314
  • Genus Leptorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 19 (1809) 317
  • Genus Limnas Ehrh. ex House, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 6 (1920) 203 (nom. superfl.)
  • Genus Mesoptera Raf., Fl. Tellur. 4 (1836) 49
  • Genus Paliris Dumort., Fl. Belg. (1827) 134
  • Genus Platystylis Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. (1830) 18
  • Genus Pseudorchis Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2 (1821) 213
  • Genus Stichorchis Thouars, Hist. Orchid. (1822) Tab. 1
  • Genus Stichorkis Thouars, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 19 (1809) 318
  • Genus Sturmia Rchb., Icon. Bot. Pl. Crit. 4 (1826) 39

Sympodial epiphytic or terrestrial plants with very short to rather elongated rhizomes. Pseudobulbs consisting of one to several internodes, 1- to few-leaved. Leaves sheathing or not, glabrous, plicate or not, deciduous or not, duplicate or convolute, soft-herbaceous or leathery. Inflorescence terminal (hysteranthous or synanthous), rarely (only in New Guinea) seemingly basal (heteranthous), a few- to many-flowered raceme, sometimes with the flowers opening one-by-one (and then with closely spaced laterally flattened bracts arranged in two rows). Flowers small to very small, resupinate. Sepals free, usually narrow and reflexed. Petals free, usually much narrower than the sepals. Lip without spur, not mobile, usually abruptly bent downwards either near the base or near the middle. Column-foot absent. Pollinia 4, solid, caudicles absent, stipe absent, viscidium absent.


Cosmopolitan (but absent from New Zealand). About 400 species (certainly much less once the whole genus is revised); in New Guinea c. 80 species (probably representing around 60 good species, considering the large number of almost indistinguishable 'species' in sect. Distichae).

Terrestrial or epiphytic in lowland and montane forest.

  • Cameron, K. M. 2005. Leave it to the leaves: A molecular phylogenetic study of Malaxideae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 92: 1025-1032.
  • Garay, L.A. & G.A. Romero. 1999. Schedulae Orchidium II. Harvard Pap. Bot. 4: 475-488.
  • Margonska, H.B. & D.L. Szlachetko. 2004. Disticholiparis Marg. & Szlach. - eine neue Gattung der Subtribus Malaxidinae. Orchidee 55: 175-179.
  • Pridgeon, A. M., P.J. Cribb, M.W. Chase & F.N. Rasmussen (Eds.). 2005. Genera Orchidacearum, Volume 4: Epidendroideae (Part one). Pp. 453-486. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Ridley, H.N. 1887. A monograph of the genus Liparis. J. Linn. Soc., Bot., 22: 244-297.
  • Seidenfaden, G. 1976. Orchid genera in Thailand IV: Liparis L.C.Rich. Dansk Bot. Ark. 31, 1: 5-105.
  • Subfamily Epidendroideae
  • Tribe Malaxideae
  • Genus Liparis

A genus of small-flowered orchids, generally with rather simple, uniform flowers, having the basal part of the lip parallel with the column, and the remaining part making a right angle with the basal part. The genus is interesting because of its nearly cosmopolitan distribution and in that it contains epiphytic as well as terrestrial species. Normally the individual species are either epiphytic or terrestrial. Species of Liparis are not often cultivated, being mostly fairly inconspicuous, frequently with green or brownish flowers. Many, however, have a subtle charm and most are quite easy to grow. They will usually flower almost 'automatically' from the developing young shoot.

Schlechter (1911-1914) proposed a detailed subdivision of the genus that will undoubtedly be found to require modification when DNA analyses of a sufficiently large number of species are performed. His sections, however, are at least useful as an aid towards identification, and in most cases they do seem to group related species together. On the other hand, some very similar taxa, such as Liparis altigena Schltr. ([Picture] SCHL266.JPG) and Liparis ovalis Schltr. ([Picture] SCHL281.JPG), are not only assigned to different sections, but even to different subgenera, just because in the former the leaves are not articulated, while in the latter they are articulated with the leaf-sheaths. It is unlikely that this reflects the true phylogeny of these species.

While we recognise that there is undoubtedly an element of artificiality in this classification we have nevertheless attempted to fit all the New Guinea species of Liparis in Schlechter’s system. Our main rationale is that this subdivision makes it easier to identify specimens in the absence of a key to the species. Some of the names we use are different from Schlechter's for nomenclatural reasons. As in Dendrobium and Bulbophyllum, Schlechter’s sections are so to speak better than his subgenera, and we have not adopted the latter. We consider it likely that sect. Platychilus should be merged with sect. Platyglossum, while sect. Genychilus should probably be merged with sect. Genyglossum. Van Royen (1979) subsumes sect. Hologlossum under sect. Platyglossum, but this requires further study, in our opinion.

Most of the sections of Liparis were typified by P. van Royen (1979). Unfortunately he made the mistake of typifying sections Genyglossum and Genychila with the same species, Liparis genychila Schltr. The type of the former should clearly be Liparis truncicola Schltr., the only species originally included by Schlechter in sect. Genyglossum.

We refer to our general remarks in the Introduction on the nomenclature of sections and subgenera.

Some of the sections are more distinctive than others, and there have been proposals to raise the more easily recognised ones to generic rank. The section Distichae is an obvious candidate for this treatment. As a genus it should be called Stichorkis. We prefer to keep section Distichae within the genus Liparis, however, as species with very similar floral and vegetative morphology occur elsewhere in the genus (e.g. Liparis torricellensis Schltr. [Picture] TORR8859.JPG).

Key to the New Guinea sections of Liparis.

1a. Leaves plicate or not, soft herbaceous, convolute (at least seemingly so in plicate-leaved taxa, and clearly so when the leaves are not plicate), not articulated with the leaf-sheath ... 2
1b. Leaves not plicate, more or less leathery, duplicate, either or not articulated with the leaf-sheath or pseudobulb ... 3

2a. Shoot 1-leaved; leaf not plicate, the leaf arising below the pseudobulb ... sect. Rachidibulbon
2b. Shoot 1- to few-leaved; leaves plicate, arising from the upper part of the pseudobulb ... sect. Elatae

3a. Inflorescence seemingly basal (in fact heteranthous) ... sect. Choriostachys
3b. Inflorescence terminal ... 4

4a. Leaves not articulated with the sheath or pseudobulb, gradually withering away when dead, remnants of the veins for a long time remaining on the apex of the pseudobulb ... 5
4b. Leaves articulated with the sheath or pseudobulb, leaving a clean scar when falling off ... 7

5a. Pseudobulbs with a few grass-like leaves distributed along the stem ... sect. Pleiophyllum
5b. Pseudobulbs 1-leaved at the apex ... 6

6a. Lip entire ... sect. Platychilus
6b. Lip 3-lobed ... sect. Genychilus

7a. Inflorescence with closely spaced, distichous bracts; flowers opening in succession, usually one-by-one ... sect. Distichae
7b. Floral bracts not distichous, usually not closely spaced; several to many flowers opening at the same time ... 8

8a. Lip 3-lobed near the base ... sect. Genyglossum
8b. Lip not lobed near the base ... 9

9a. Lip abruptly bent downwards near the middle, often notched or bilobed at the apex; usually epiphytes ... 10
9b. Lip only bent at the base, entire; usually terrestrial ... sect. Platyglossum

10a. Lip at apex rounded to acute, entire. Peduncle strongly flattened or terete... sect. Hologlossum
10b. Lip at apex bilobulate, or truncate and irregular. Peduncle terete ... sect. Cestichis (syn. sect. Blepharoglossum Schltr.)

Species included in this database:

Liparis acaulis
Liparis altigena
Liparis anceps
Liparis anemophila
Liparis apiculata
Liparis arachnites
Liparis arrigens
Liparis barbata
Liparis brachystele
Liparis brassii
Liparis brevicaulis
Liparis brunnescens
Liparis calcarea
Liparis caricifolia
Liparis caespitosa
Liparis chlorantha
Liparis cinnabarina
Liparis condylobulbon
Liparis congesta
Liparis cyclostele
Liparis cymbidiifolia
Liparis cyperifolia
Liparis dolichobulbon
Liparis elegans
Liparis exilis
Liparis finisterrae
Liparis flabellata
Liparis gautierensis
Liparis geelvinkensis
Liparis genychila
Liparis gibbosa
Liparis gibbsiae
Liparis gjellerupii
Liparis glumacea
Liparis govidjoae
Liparis graciliscapa
Liparis graminifolia
Liparis imperatifolia
Liparis inamoena
Liparis insectifera
Liparis janowskyi
Liparis kempteriana
Liparis kenejiae
Liparis lacus
Liparis lamproglossa
Liparis latibasis
Liparis layardii
Liparis leptopus
Liparis loliacea
Liparis maingayi
Liparis major
Liparis microblepharon
Liparis miniata
Liparis misoolensis
Liparis nebuligena
Liparis ochrantha
Liparis oligantha
Liparis ovalis
Liparis pandaneti
Liparis pedicellaris
Liparis platychila
Liparis pseudodisticha
Liparis puberula
Liparis pullei
Liparis rheedii
Liparis robusta
Liparis schistochila
Liparis serrulata
Liparis spectabilis
Liparis spectabilis var. dischorensis
Liparis sympodialis
Liparis torricellensis
Liparis trachyglossa
Liparis triticea
Liparis truncatula
Liparis truncicola
Liparis truncicola var. oblanceolata
Liparis viridiflora
Liparis werneri


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Genus Liparis

Liparis pseudodisticha Schltr. aff., flower, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 981074

Genus Liparis

Liparis pseudodisticha Schltr. aff., habit, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 981074

Genus Liparis

Liparis pseudodisticha Schltr. aff., inflorescence, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 981074

Genus Liparis

Liparis altigena Schltr., inflorescence, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (12/80, PNG, Mt. Gahavisuka)

Genus Liparis

Liparis brunnescens Schltr. aff., plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030224

Genus Liparis

Liparis brunnescens Schltr. aff., rachis with flower and buds, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030224

Genus Liparis

Liparis brunnescens Schltr. aff., flower, oblique front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030224

Genus Liparis

Liparis elegans Lindl., flowers, photo P. O'Byrne, from Sulawesi

Genus Liparis

Liparis genychila Schltr. aff., in situ near Woitape, PNG, photo E.F. de Vogel, from Woitape, PNG

Genus Liparis

Liparis genychila Schltr. aff., flowers, photo E.F. de Vogel, from Woitape, PNG

Genus Liparis

Liparis genychila Schltr. aff., flowers, photo E.F. de Vogel, Woitape lodge collection, PNG

Genus Liparis

Liparis oligantha Schltr. aff., habit, photo Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, based on Edinburgh cult. 691642

Genus Liparis

Liparis spectabilis Schltr., inflorescence, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (4/87, PNG)

Genus Liparis

Liparis torricellensis Schltr., flower, oblique front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031657

Genus Liparis

Liparis truncicola Schltr. aff., plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030223

Genus Liparis

Liparis truncicola Schltr. aff., inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030223

Genus Liparis

Liparis truncicola Schltr. aff., flowers, various views, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030223

Genus Liparis

Liparis truncicola Schltr. aff., flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030223

Genus Liparis

Liparis truncicola Schltr. aff., flowers, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030223

Genus Liparis

Liparis truncicola Schltr. aff., flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20030223

Genus Liparis

Liparis werneri Schltr., flower, photo J.B. Comber, from PNG, Wabag

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, flower, oblique front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, from PNG, Woitape

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, from PNG, Woitape

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, inflorescence, photo P. O'Byrne, based on O'Byrne L040

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp., habit, photo P. O'Byrne, based on O'Byrne L040

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, stem with inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Distichae, inflorescence, flower oblique front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031736

Genus Liparis

Liparis sp. sect. Rachidibulbon, habit, photo Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, based on Edinburgh cult. 682084

Genus Liparis

Liparis arrigens J.J.Sm., floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Docters van Leeuwen 10524

Genus Liparis

Liparis werneri Schltr., drawing N.H.S. Howcroft 92, from PNG, Aseki divide