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Genus Crepidium

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 387

Synonyms:

  • Genus Achroanthes Raf., Amer. Monthly Mag. Crit. Rev. 4 (1819) 159
  • Genus Acroanthes Raf., J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89 (1819) 261
  • Genus Anaphora Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris)
  • Genus Cheiropterocephalus Barb.Rodr., Orchid. Nov. 1 (1877) 28
  • Genus Dienia Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. (1824) sub t. 825
  • Genus Fingardia Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 134
  • Genus Gastroglottis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 397
  • Genus Glossochilopsis Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 122
  • Genus Hammarbya Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 2 (1891) 665
  • Genus Kornasia Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 120
  • Genus Lisowskia Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 121
  • Genus Malaxis Soland. ex Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. (1778) 119
  • Genus Microstylis (Nutt.) Eaton, Man. Bot.
  • Genus Oberonioides Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 134
  • Genus Pedilea Lindl. in Hook., Exot. Fl. (1824) sub t. 115
  • Genus Pseudoliparis Finet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 54 (1907) 536
  • Genus Pterochilus Hook. & Arn., Bot. Beech. Voy. (1832) t. 17
  • Genus Saurolophorkis Marg. & Szlach., Polish Bot. J. 46 (2001) 7
  • Genus Seidenfia Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 122
  • Genus Tamayorkis Szlach., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Supp. 3 (1995) 121

Sympodial terrestrial or sometimes epiphytic plants with very short to very long rhizomes. Stem few to many-leaved. Pseudobulbs present or not, consisting of one to several internodes, or, when absent, stem short to much elongated (then often creeping). Leaves sheathing at the base, glabrous, plicate (or not plicate in regions outside New Guinea), persistent, duplicate, green, light brown, or purple, sometimes with paler longitudinal bands or darker spots, thin-textured. Inflorescence terminal, a many-flowered (very rarely few-flowered) raceme. Flowers small to very small, not resupinate, often greenish or dark purple. Sepals free. Petals free, usually much narrower than the sepals. Lip without spur, not mobile, at the base usually with 2 lobes (auricles) that clasp the column. Column usually very short, sometimes elongated and then often provided with a horn-like dorsal projection. Column-foot absent. Pollinia 4, solid, caudicles absent, stipe absent, viscidium absent.


Asia. About 190 species; in New Guinea c. 90 species, which upon revision will probably turn out to represent far less 'good' species.

Mainly terrestrial in lowland and montane forest, occasionally epiphytic on mossy tree trunks.

  • Cameron, K. M. 2005. Leave it to the leaves: A molecular phylogenetic study of Malaxideae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae). Am. J. Bot. 92: 1025-1032.
  • Margonska, H. B. 2003. Materials towards a revision of the genus Pseudoliparis (Malaxidinae) 1. Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 63-66.
  • Margonska, H. B. 2003. Materials towards a revision of the genus Pseudoliparis (Malaxidinae) 2. Section Oistochilus. Ann. Bot. Fennici 40: 357-372.
  • Pridgeon, A. M., P.J. Cribb, M.W. Chase & F.N. Rasmussen (Eds.). 2005. Genera Orchidacearum, Volume 4: Epidendroideae (Part one). Pp. 453-486. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Seidenfaden, G. 1978. Orchid genera in Thailand VII: Oberonia Lindl. & Malaxis Sol.ex Sw. Dansk Bot. Ark. 33, 1: 1-94.
  • Schuiteman, A. & de Vogel, E.F. 2006. Flora Malesiana: Orchids of New Guinea Vol IV; Genera Kuhlhasseltia to Ophioglossella. (CD).
  • Ormerod, P. 2017. Checklist of Papuasian Orchids. 140.
  • Family Orchidaceae
  • Subfamily Epidendroideae
  • Tribe Malaxideae
  • Genus Crepidium

Phylogenetic studies based on DNA sequence data have culminated in the treatment of Crepidium and related genera in Genera Orchidacearum vol. 4 (Pridgeon et al., 2005). According to this treatment the name Malaxis should be reserved for a group of species occurring in part of the neotropics as well as in continental Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. It would appear that these species all have not-plicate leaves. All Malesian species including the New Guinea species have plicate leaves and should be assigned to the genus Crepidium, with the exception of Malaxis ophrydis, which should be called Dienia ophrydis. We consider that more work is needed to fix the generic boundaries and to establish morphological support for the clades found in molecular studies.

Members of the genus Crepidium (until recently known as Malaxis) are small, soft-leaved plants, usually growing in moist shady spots on the forest floor, with plicate leaves and slender racemes with usually quite inconspicuous greenish or purplish flowers. The flowers are not resupinate. Crepidium is not common in cultivation, but several species would be well worth growing for their nicely coloured foliage, which may be e.g. bluish green with light brown bands, ochrish brown, or glossy purple. Most species have plain green leaves, however. In some species of section Pseudoliparis the column is almost indigo-blue.

Schlechter (1911-1914) has proposed an infrageneric classification for the New Guinea species of Crepidium (or rather Microstylis, as he called this genus). The comments we made under Liparis apply here as well, in that these sections may not always conform to true clades, but that they are useful for identification purposes. Mainly for this reason we have retained Schlechter's classification, with some modifications.

We found it impossible to keep the sections Commelinodes and Crepidium (syn. Microstylis sect. Pleiodon Schltr.) separate. According to Schlechter, members of sect. Commelinodes should have elongated, decumbent and rooting stems, while sect. Crepidium should have short, crowded and erect stems that root only at the base. The flower structure, as Schlechter himself already noted, is identical in the two sections. But the vegetative differences are not at all as clear-cut as Schlechter implied. There are several species for which it would be quite arbitrary to assign them to one section or the other. For example,Crepidium vinicolor was included by Schlechter in section Crepidium (Pleiodon as Schlechter called it). As can be seen from the photograph of a type specimen ( [Picture] 448-318T.JPG ) this species has quite elongated rhizomes, and except for the lower number of leaves there is no essential difference with a species like Crepidium fissum ( [Picture] 448-83U.JPG ), which Schlechter included in section Commelinodes. Seidenfaden (1978) maintains the distinction between the sections Commelinodes and Crepidium and suggests as an additional difference that the stems in sect. Commelinodes are not swollen, while in sect. Crepidium they are often swollen into pseudobulbs. Having seen living specimens of many species of genus Crepidium we have to disagree with the statement that the stem in sect. Commelinodes is never swollen. Summarising, we think that for the New Guinea members of the genus Crepidium the distinction between sections Commelinodes and Crepidium can not be upheld. This was apparently also the position of J. J. Smith, since he included 'typical' species of sect. Commelinodes in sect. Crepidium. For the time being we retain sect. Herpetorhizis, which is characterised by the shoots appearing at long intervals along a creeping rhizome, but this should probably also be included in sect. Crepidium.

Finally, we consider that section Ophthalmodes is not well separable from sect. Holobos, since Malaxis carinatifolia (J.J.Sm.) P.F.Hunt could be accommodated in both. A key to the sections is found below.

There have been various proposals to split up genus Malaxis (now Crepidium) into several smaller genera, notably by Szlachetko and his collaborators. In this view the New Guinea species of Crepidium should be distributed over the following genera: Crepidium, Dienia, Fingardia, Pseudoliparis and Saurolophorkis. However, these proposals are not backed by phylogenetic analyses and, in our opinion, they are highly subjective, so we have decided not to follow them.

Key to the New Guinea sections of genus Crepidium as treated in Schuiteman & de Vogel, Flora Malesiana. Orchids of New Guiinea Vol. IV (20

1a. Lip in the apical part with denticulate margin or with 4 or more teeth or filaments == 2
1b. Lip in the apical part entire or 2- or 3-lobulate == 3

2a. Vegetative parts clearly differentiated into a long, creeping, leafless rhizome and short leafy shoots == sect. Herpetorhizis
2b. Rhizome either very short or if elongated passing gradually into the leafy part of the stem == sect. Crepidium (syn. sect. Pleiodon; sect. Commelinodes)

3a. Lip with basal lobes (auricles) more or less clasping the column == 4
3a. Lip without basal auricles == sect. Gastroglottis (genus Dienia)

4a. Lip entire or very indistinctly 3-lobed (not including the basal auricles), tip not bilobulate == 5
4b. Lip distinctly 3-lobed (not including the basal auricles), often with a bilobulate tip == sect. Hololobos (syn. sect. Ophthalmodes)

5a. Column often somewhat elongated, with large, often decurved apical wings or arms, often with a horn-like dorsal projection == sect. Pseudoliparis (syn. sect. Oistochilus)
5b. Column very short, almost without a stalk, with indistinct apical wings, never with a dorsal projection == sect. Bothrocardia


Genus Crepidium in New Guinea contains c. 106 species and 6 varieties:

Crepidium arachnoideum
Crepidium atratum
Crepidium atrobrachiatum
Crepidium bisepalum
Crepidium brachycaulos
Crepidium brachyodontum
Crepidium breviscapum
Crepidium caricoides
Crepidium carinatifolium
Crepidium circeum
Crepidium cordanthemon
Crepidium cruciatum
Crepidium curvatulum
Crepidium curviauriculatum
Crepidium cyanobrachium
Crepidium decumbens
Crepidium diploceras
Crepidium distans
Crepidium dolichostachys
Crepidium dresslerianum
Crepidium dryadum
Crepidium epiphyticum
Crepidium euanthum
Crepidium fasciatum
Crepidium fasciatum var. concolor
Crepidium fissum
Crepidium floscularium
Crepidium foetidum
Crepidium foliosum
Crepidium fulvum
Crepidium gibbsiae
Crepidium graminifolium
Crepidium grandiflorum
Crepidium grandifolium
Crepidium gregorii
Crepidium heliophilum
Crepidium hippocrepiforme
Crepidium hydrophilum
Crepidium incurvum
Crepidium integrilabium
Crepidium kempfii
Crepidium keysseri
Crepidium laeve
Crepidium lamii
Crepidium latipetalum
Crepidium latilabre
Crepidium latipetalum
Crepidium latum
Crepidium laxum
Crepidium ledermannii
Crepidium leucodon
Crepidium longispicum
Crepidium maaikeae
Crepidium maboroense
Crepidium macrophyllum
Crepidium macrotis
Crepidium megalanthum
Crepidium melanophyllum
Crepidium micholitzianum
Crepidium microhybos
Crepidium moluccanum
Crepidium myosotis
Crepidium nephroglossum
Crepidium nitidum
Crepidium nitidum var. cyclopensis
Crepidium novoguineense
Crepidium ochyranum
Crepidium oliganthum
Crepidium oliganthum var. neuroglossum
Crepidium olivaceum
Crepidium ophrydis
Crepidium oreocharis
Crepidium paguroides
Crepidium pectinatum
Crepidium pedicellare
Crepidium petiolare
Crepidium productum
Crepidium protractum
Crepidium pubicallosum
Crepidium quadridens
Crepidium raciborskii
Crepidium resupinatum
Crepidium retusum
Crepidium retusum var. brevis
Crepidium rhabdophyllum
Crepidium rhinoceros
Crepidium ridleyanum
Crepidium riparium
Crepidium schumannianum
Crepidium sciaphilum
Crepidium sciaphilum var. bismarckiensis
Crepidium segaarense
Crepidium seidenfadenianum
Crepidium seleniglossum
Crepidium stenophyllum
Crepidium stenostachys
Crepidium stolleanum
Crepidium torricellense
Crepidium tubulosum
Crepidium umbonatum
Crepidium undulatum
Crepidium vanroyenii
Crepidium verruculosum
Crepidium vinicolor
Crepidium vinosum
Crepidium wappeanum
Crepidium warapussae
Crepidium warianum
Crepidium warianum var. oreogenum
Crepidium werneri
Crepidium witkowskianum
Crepidium xanthochilum
Crepidium yamapense
Crepidium zippelii


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Genus Crepidium

Crepidium carinatifolium ((J.J.Sm.) Szlach., flowers, photo J.B. Comber, Kebun Raya Bogor cult., from Papua (Indonesia)

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium cf. distans (Schltr.) Szlach., habit (in situ), photo A. Schuiteman

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium cf. distans (Schltr.) Szlach., inflorescence, photo A. Schuiteman

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium lamii (J.J.Sm.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones aff, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031588

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium lamii (J.J.Sm.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones aff, inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031588

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium lamii (J.J.Sm.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones aff, flowers, various views, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031588

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium lamii (J.J.Sm.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones aff, flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031588

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium ophrydis (J.Koenig) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, inflorescence, photo J. Meijvogel, Leiden cult. 914208, from Borneo, Sarawak

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium rhinoceros (J.J.Sm.) Szlach. aff, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031589

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium rhinoceros (J.J.Sm.) Szlach. aff, rachis with buds and flowers, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031589

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium rhinoceros (J.J.Sm.) Szlach. aff, inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031589

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium rhinoceros (J.J.Sm.) Szlach. aff, flower, oblique front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031589

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium rhinoceros (J.J.Sm.) Szlach. aff, flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031589

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium rhinoceros (J.J.Sm.) Szlach. aff, buds and flower, oblique lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031589

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium xanthochilum (Schltr.) Szlach. aff., plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031833

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium xanthochilum (Schltr.) Szlach. aff., inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031833

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium xanthochilum (Schltr.) Szlach. aff., part of inflorescence, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031833

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, rachis with flower and buds, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, flower, front view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult.

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, plant habit, in situ. Mt. Konokalang top region, 1550 m, NIP, photo E.F. de Vogel

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, part of inflorescence. Mt. Konokalang top region, 1550 m, NIP, photo E.F. de Vogel

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032191

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), rachis, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032191

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), flower, oblique lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032191

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), flower, lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032191

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), plant habit, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032197

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032197

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), flower, oblique lateral view, photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032197

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis (close to Crepidium bisepalum (Gilli) Schuit. & de Vogel and Crepidium cordanthemon (Marg. & Szlach.) Schuit. & de Vogel), photo E.F. de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20032197

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis, habit (in situ), photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (4/83, PNG, Mt. Gahavisuka)

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis, habit (in situ), photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, March 1981, PNG, Namapo

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis, habit, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, October 1980, ex PNG, Chuave

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Pseudoliparis, inflorescence, photo Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, based on Edinburgh cult. 681734

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium arachnoideum (Schltr.) Szlach. (as Microstylis arachnoidea Schltr.) drawing R. Schlechter in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 53, fig. 185

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium decumbens (Schltr.) Szlach. aff., drawing P. O'Byrne in Lowland Orchids of New Guinea (1994) 23

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium decumbens (Schltr.) Szlach., drawing N.H.S. Howcroft 301

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium epiphyticum (Schltr.) Szlach., floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Versteeg 1154

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium lamii (J.J.Sm.) M.A.Clem. & D.L.Jones, floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Lam 545

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium productum (J.J.Sm.) Szlach., floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Gibbs 5677

Genus Crepidium

Crepidium sp. sect. Crepidium, drawing P. O'Byrne in Lowland Orchids of New Guinea (1994) 21