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Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., Bull. Dép. Agric. Indes Néerl. 39 (1910) 17

Type: Römer, von 1322 (holo BO)

Synonyms:

  • Eria bifolia (J.J.Sm.) Kraenzl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1911) 176
  • Mediocalcar albicoccineum P.Royen, Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 661, fig. 233
    - Type: Hoogland & Pullen 5602 (holo CANB)
  • Mediocalcar angustifolium Gilli, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 84/B (1983) 35, fig. 25 (non Schltr.)
    - Type: Gilli 565 (holo W)
  • Mediocalcar angustum J.J.Sm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 66 (1934) 175
    - Type: Mayr 597 (holo L)
  • Mediocalcar brevisaccatum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 16 (1919) 215
    - Type: Keysser s.n. (X-1912, Saruwaged Mts., 2400-3000 m) (holo B, lost)
  • Mediocalcar compressicalcar J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 14 (1929) 383, pl. 55, fig. 39
    - Type: Lam 1827 (holo L; iso BO)
  • Mediocalcar diphyllum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1 (1911) 230
    - Type: Schlechter 18227 (lecto BM, chosen by Schuiteman 1997; iso AMES, BO, K, L)
  • Mediocalcar erectum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1 (1911) 231
    - Type: Schlechter 20229 (holo B, lost)
  • Mediocalcar filopedunculatum Gilli, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 84/B (1983) 36, fig. 26
    - Type: Gilli 492 (holo W)
  • Mediocalcar montanum Ridl., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 9 (1916) 201
    - Type: Kloss s.n. (27-I-1913, Camp 13, 10500 ft.) (holo BM)
  • Mediocalcar monticola Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1 (1911) 232
    - Type: Schlechter 18801 (holo B, lost; lecto K, chosen by Schuiteman 1997; iso AMES, BM)
  • Mediocalcar retusum J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 14 (1929) 382, pl. 54, fig. 38
    - Type: Lam 1828 (holo BO; iso K, L)

Roots densely covered with root-hairs, 0.5 mm thick. Rhizome erect, patent or pendulous, usually frequently branching, the branches often becoming more numerous distally, 1-1.5 mm thick. Cataphylls of the young shoot 3-5, closely appressed, glabrous, subacute, keeled near the tip. Pseudobulbs 0-15 mm apart, terete, 1-2 cm long, 1-2.5 mm across; base elongated, enveloping the rhizome; free part ascending to prostrate, usually much shorter than the basal part. Leaves mostly two per pseudobulb, but one-leaved pseudobulbs fairly frequent, rarely all pseudobulbs one-leaved, sessile to subpetiolate, linear to narrowly elliptic, flat to semiterete (index (3.7-)5-16(-22)), (1.5-)2.5-6(-11) cm by (2-)3-7(-9) mm; glabrous; apex obtuse, rarely acute, minutely bilobed, mucronate; margins entire; coriaceous to carnose. Inflorescences solitary, synanthous or heteranthous, at the base with an inconspicuous scale c. 1 mm long. Peduncle 5-15 mm long, at the apex with a triangular bract 1-1.5 mm long. Pedicel and ovary 7-11 mm long. Flowers urceolate, oblique, 8-10.5 mm long. Synsepalumum 9-11 mm long and (13.5-)15-18 mm wide when cut open and flattened; free tips spreading to recurved, c. 3 mm long, subacute to acute. Petals linear to narrowly elliptic (index 4.5-10.8), 6.5-8 by (0.6-)1.2-1.5 mm; apex acute; 1-3-nerved. Lip (6-)7-9 by (2-)2.5-3.5 mm in natural position, the blade broadly ovate-subcordate when flattened; claw (2.5-)3-4 by c. 1.5-2.5 mm, auricles usually conspicuous, rarely hardly developed, subpatent to recurved; apex acute, slightly recurved; margins erect,clasping the column; spur cucullate to saccate, rarely recurved, at most half as long as the claw, (1-)1.5-2 mm deep. Column broadly clavate to subspathulate, (4-)5-6.2 mm long, 2-2.7 mm wide at the apex, foot 0.6-1.5 mm long. Fruit narrowly cylindrical-clavate, 23-35 by 3 mm. (After Schuiteman, 1997)


Sepals usually bright red, but not rarely orange-red or pinkish red or brownish red, with pure white tips, often only the margins of the tips white, sometimes the tips pink. Petals and lip pale orange with white or pinkish tips. Very rarely the entire flower yellow. Leaves dull green, pseudobulbs dull green to dull purple.

Epiphyte in mossy forest, also terrestrial in moss cushions in open but sheltered vegetation, e.g. along tracks; 760-3350 m.

Malesia (New Guinea, endemic).

Papua (Indonesia); Papua New Guinea. See map

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., distribution in New Guinea

Cool growing epiphyte, requires light shade.

January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December.

  • Smith, J.J., Nova Guinea 8, 3 (1911) 544, t. 86A
  • Smith, J.J., Nova Guinea 12, 3 (1915) 255
  • Schlechter, R., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 85, fig. 312, as Mediocalcar diphyllum Schltr.
  • Schlechter, R., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 85, fig. 313, as Mediocalcar erectum Schltr.
  • Schlechter, R., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 85, fig. 314, as Mediocalcar monticola Schltr.
  • Royen, P. van, Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 666, fig. 235, as Mediocalcar montanum Ridl.
  • Royen, P. van, Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 681, fig. 241, as Mediocalcar retusum J.J.Sm.
  • Royen, P. van, Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 683, fig. 242
  • Schuiteman, A., Orchid Monogr. 8 (1997) 45, fig. 10, pl. 2c
  • Family Orchidaceae
  • Subfamily Epidendroideae
  • Tribe Podochileae
  • Subtribe Eriinae
  • Genus Mediocalcar
  • Species Mediocalcar bifolium

Perhaps the most frequently encountered orchid in the mountains of New Guinea. It often grows together with the very similar Mediocalcar agathodaemonis, which however has green-tipped flowers, synanthous inflorescences only, and broader leaves & pseudobulbs.


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Mediocalcar bifolium

overview picture

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., habit, photo Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, based on Edinburgh cult. 761299

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flowers, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 960710

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower, lateral view, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 960710

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower, frontal view, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 960710

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower cut open, photo A. Schuiteman, Leiden cult. 960710

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., plant habit, photo Jin Cara, from Papua New Guinea, Western Highland Prov., Tomba Pass

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower, photo Jon Cara, from Papua New Guinea, Western Highland Prov., Tomba Pass

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower, photo Jon Cara, from Papua New Guinea, Western Highland Prov., Tomba Pass

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower, photo Graham Corbin, from Papua New Guinea, Enga Prov., Laiagam

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flower, photo Graham Corbin, from Papua New Guinea, Enga Prov., Laiagam

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., stem with flowers, photo Jon Cara, from Papua New Guinea

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., stem with flowers, photo Jon Cara, from Papua New Guinea

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., drawing A. Schuiteman in Orchid Monogr. 8 (1997) fig. 10

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., drawing P. van Royen in Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 683, fig. 242

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., lip, column and anther, drawing J.J. Smith, based on von Römer 1322

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., flowering plant fragment, petal and sepals, drawing J.J. Smith, based on von Römer 1322

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar albicoccineum P.Royen), drawing Pieter van Royen, in P.Royen, Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 661, fig. 233. based on Hoogland & Pullen 5602

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar angustum J.J.Sm.), floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Mayr 597

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar compressicalcar J.J.Sm.), floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Lam 1827

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar diphyllum Schltr.), drawing R. Schlechter in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 85, fig. 312

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar erectum Schltr.), drawing R. Schlechter in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 85, fig. 313

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar montanum Ridl.), drawing P. van Royen in Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 666, fig. 235

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar monticola Schltr.), drawing R. Schlechter in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 85, fig. 314

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar retusum J.J.Sm.), drawing P. van Royen in Alp. Fl. New Guinea 2 (1979) 681, fig. 241

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar retusum J.J.Sm.), floral analysis, drawing J.J. Smith, based on Lam 1828

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., as Mediocalcar angustifolium Gilli, drawing A. Gilli in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 84/B (1983) 35, fig. 25 (non Schltr.), based on Gilli 565 (holotype W)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., as Mediocalcar filopedunculatum Gilli, drawing A. Gilli in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 84/B (1983) 35, fig. 25 (non Schltr.), based on Gilli 492 (holotype W)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., herbarium sheet, Römer, von 1322 (holotype specimen BO)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar angustum J.J.Sm.), herbarium sheet, Mayr 597 (holotype specimen L)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar compressicalcar J.J.Sm.), herbarium sheet, Lam 1827 (isotype specimen BO)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar compressicalcar J.J.Sm.), herbarium sheet, Lam 1827 (holotype specimen L)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar diphyllum Schltr.), herbarium sheet, isolectotype specimen, Schlechter 18227 (isolectotype specimen BO)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar diphyllum Schltr.), herbarium sheet, Schlechter 18227 (isotype specimen L)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar monticola Schltr.), herbarium sheet, Schlechter 18801 (lectotype specimen K), photo copyright the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar retusum J.J.Sm.), herbarium sheet, Lam 1828 (holotype specimen BO)

Mediocalcar bifolium

Mediocalcar bifolium J.J.Sm., (as Mediocalcar retusum J.J.Sm.), herbarium sheet, Lam 1828 (isotype specimen L)