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Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 6 (1910) 270

Synonyms:

  • Bletia graminifolia D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 29
    - Type: Hamilton s.n. (holo BM), from Nepal, Suembu.
  • Limodorum graminifolium (D.Don) Buch.-Ham. ex Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 857
  • Arundina chinensis Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 402
    - Type: Blume s.n. (China introduction) (holo L)
  • Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. var. chinensis (Blume) S.S.Ying, Col. Illust. Indig. Orchid. Taiwan 1, 2 (1977) 51
  • Arundina speciosa Blume, Bijdr. (1825) 401; Tab. & Pl. Jav. Orchid. (1825) t. 73
    - Type: Blume s.n. (Java, Buitenzorg Prov.); (Java, Tjanjor Prov.); (Java, Krawang Prov.) (syn L?)
  • Arundina bambusifolia Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. (1831) 125
  • Arundina minor Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. (1831) 125
    - Type: Macrae s.n. (Ceylon, Mahawelli Ganga R.)
  • Cymbidium bambusifolium Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 2, 3 (1832) 460
  • Arundina densa Lindl., Edwards's Bot. Reg. (1842) t. 38, misc. 25
    - Type: Loddiges cult. (Cuming) s.n. (Singapore)
  • Cymbidium meyenii Schauer, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1 (1843) 433
    - Type: Meyen s.n. (China, Macao)
  • Arundina meyenii (Schauer) Rchb.f., Linnaea 25 (1852) 227
  • Arundina affinis Griff., Not. Pl. Asiat. 3 (1851) 330
    - Type: Griffith 150 (16-X-1835, Khasia Mts., Churra)
  • Arundina philippii Rchb.f., Linnaea 25 (1852) 227
    - Type: Philippi s.n. (China); Fortune s.n. (China) (syn W?)
  • Arundina pulchella Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indië 5 (1853) 488
    - Type: ?
  • Arundina pulchra Miq., J. Bot. Néerl. 1 (1861) 90
    - Type: ?
  • Corymbis angustifolia Miq., Fl. Ned. Indië Suppl. (1861) 617
    - Type: Junghuhn s.n. (L, probably lost)
  • Arundina tahitensis Nadeaud, Enum. Pl. Tahiti (1873) 37
    - Type: Nadeaud 269 (holo P; photo of type BISH)
  • Arundina revoluta Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5 (1890) 858; Hooker's Icon. Pl. 22 (1892) t. 2112
    - Type: Scortechini; Wray; King's collector (all Perak) (syn K)
  • Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. var. revoluta (Hook.f.) A.L.Lamb in C.L. Chan et al., Orchid. Borneo 1 (1994) 66
  • Arundina sanderiana Kraenzl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 17 (1893) 483
    - Type: Sander cult. (Micholitz) s.n. (Sumatra, Padang, 3000-3500 feet) (holo B, destroyed; neo: Lobb 189, LE, designated by Christenson, 1995)
  • Arundina revoluta Hook.f. var. borneensis J.J.Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, sér. 3, 5 (1922) 65
    - Type: J.J. Smith cult. (Gravenhorst) s.n. (W. Borneo) (syn BO); Nieuwenhuis Exp. (Jaheri) 1185 (syn BO 2x)
  • Arundina speciosa Blume var. sarasinorum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21 (1925) 143
    - Type: Sarasin 1231 (holo B, lost)
  • Arundina stenopetala Gagnep., Bull. Soc. Bot. France 79 (1932) 32
    - Type: Eberhardt 3024 (Vietnam, Thua-thien Prov., Upper regio of Bo-giang); Poilane 4424 (Vietnam, Annam, Nhatrang); Evrard 699 (Vietnam, Annam, Nhatrang, Song Cao); Geoffrey 341 (Cambodia, Popokwil Plateau, Kampot)
  • Donacopsis laotica Gagnep., Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris), sér. 2, 4 (1932) 593
    - Type: Massie s.n. (Laos, no locality) (holo P)
  • Arundina kanehirae Yamam., Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Formosa 23 (1933) 20
    - Type: ?
  • Arundina maculata J.J.Sm., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 65 (1933) 467
    - Type: Bogor cult. (van Vuuren 449, W. Celebes, Mandar, Masawa) (syn BO 2x); Kjellberg 1480 (BO); 3181 (syn L ??, BO)
  • Arundina chinensis Blume var. major S.Y.Hu, Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 25, 1-2 (1972) 54
    - Type: ?

Basionym: Bletia graminifolia

Rhizome very short. Stems closely spaced, erect, branching with age, to 175 by 0.9 cm, many-leaved. Leaf sheaths tubular, longer than the internodes. Leaves almost linear, narrowed to the apex, to 25 by 2.4 cm, apex pointed, mid-rib prominent below. Inflorescences terminal, racemose, erect, to 40 cm long; peduncle c. 15 cm long, elliptic in cross-section, glabrous, peduncle-scales few, tubular at the base, laxly many-flowered. Floral bracts triangular, tubular at the base, 0.8 cm long, persistent, apex acute, concave. Ovary 2.3 cm long. Flowers resupinated, c. 5.5 cm across, opening in succession, short-lasting. Median sepal narrowly lanceolate, 3.5 by 0.8 cm, apex subacute. Lateral sepals held close together below the lip, turned towards the front, 3.5 by 0.8 cm, mid-ribe outside prominent, apex subacute. Petals oblong, 3.7 by 1.5 cm, convex, apex acute. Lip weakly 3-lobed, 3.7 by 2.8 cm, wavy in front, with two distinct longitudinal ribs and one or three weaker ones; lateral lobes extending beyond the column, triangular, obtuse; mid-lobe rectangular, bilobulate, with an apiculum in the sinus; densely short pubescent inside. Column elongated, slender, straight, 1.8 cm long, on either side of the stigma with a small triangular wing; rostellum large, dentate, convex, along the basal margin with two triangular teeth. Anther cucullate, obtuse, apiculate. Pollinia soft, laterally compressed. Fruit pendulous, cylindrical, pedicellate, opening along 6 valves, 5.5 cm.
(After Smith, 1905, as Arundina speciosa Blume).


Flower pale pinkish purple, lip in the centre and on the mid-lobe red-purple, on the base of the mid-lobe with a yellow blotch. Column white, pollinia pale yellow.

In open, often disturbed places on poor soil in full sun.

Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Lesser Sunda Is., ?Moluccas, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka to China, Taiwan, Pacific, naturalized in the Solomon Isl., Fiji and New Guinea.

Papua New Guinea (naturalised).

Warm to intermediate growing terrestrial, requires much light and well-drained sandy soil.

Probably throughout the year.

  • Family Orchidaceae
  • Subfamily Epidendroideae
  • Tribe Arethuseae
  • Subtribe Arethusinae
  • Genus Arundina
  • Species Arundina graminifolia
  • Smith, J.J., Orchid. Java (1905) 229, as Arundina speciosa Blume
  • Smith, J.J., Orchid. Java, Fig.-Atl. (1910) fig. 168, as Arundina speciosa Blume
  • Smith, J.J., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, Suppl. 2 (1930) t. 37, fig. IV, as Arundina revoluta Hook.f. var. borneensis J.J.Sm.
  • Smith, J.J., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, Suppl. 3 (1949) t. 167, fig. II, as Arundina maculata J.J.Sm.
  • Chan, C.L., A. Lamb, P.S. Shim & J.J. Wood, Orchid. Borneo 1 (1994) 65, fig. 6, pl. 1F & 2A
  • Tian-Chuan Hsu, T.-Y. Aleck Yang, Fred Pitisopa, Moffat Fanerii & Chia-Wei Li, Taiwania 61 (2016) 24

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Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., flower, oblique front view, photo Jon Cara, cult. Jon Cara

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., flower, lateral view, photo Jon Cara, cult. Jon Cara

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., in situ, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (7/84, PNG, Agaun)

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., flowers, photo N.E.G. Cruttwell, based on Cruttwell (7/84, PNG, Agaun)

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., flower, from Leiden cult.

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., flower detail, from Leiden cult.

Arundina graminifolia

Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr., flower, oblique lateral view, photo John Cara, based on a plant from Mt. Hagen.