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Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., in D'Urv., Voy. Astrol., Bot. (1834) 22.

Type: Lesson s.n. (New Guinea) (holo P).West New Guinea, near Bivak Hollandia, Gjellerup 401 (holo BO).

Synonyms:

  • Dendrobium veitchianum Lindl., Bot. Mag. (1847) t. 25.
    - Type: Java, Lobb (holo K!).
  • Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. var. veitchianum (Lindl.) Hook.f., Bot. Mag. (1867) t. 5649.
  • 103-332 Callista veitchiana (Lindl.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 655.
  • Dendrobium ferox Hassk., Retzia 1 (1855) 1.
    - Type: Java, Hasskarl (holo BO).
  • Dendrobium sarcostoma Teijsm. & Binn. ex Miq., Fl. Ned. Indië 3 (1859) 633 (nom. nud.).
    - Type: not designated.
  • Dendrobium gordonii S.Moore, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 20 (1883) 372.
    - Type: Horne 942: 2 collections, (Samoa, Upolo), or (Viti Levu, Babuca).
  • Callista gordonii (S.Moore) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. (1891) 65
  • Dendrobium brachythecum F.Muell. & Kraenzl., Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 44 (1894) 161; Kraenzl., Xenia Orchid. 3 (1900) 164, t. 295.
    - Type: Anderson s.n. (1893) (holo MEL, iso HBG).
  • ?Dendrobium ternatense J.J.Sm., Bull. Dép. Agric. Indes Néerl. 22 (1909) 26.
    - Type: Moluccas, Ternate, J.J. Smith s.n. (holo BO).
  • Dendrobium psyche Kraenzl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 246.
    - Type: New Hebrides (Vanuatu), Braithwaite (holo B, lost).
  • Dendrobium tomohonense Kraenzl. in Engl., Pflanzenr. IV. 50. II. B. 21 (1910) 244.
    - Type: Celebes, Sarasin 655; 799 (syn B, lost).
  • Dendrobium musciferum Schltr., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1 (1912) 494; 21 (1923) t. 167, fig. 625.
    - Type: Schlechter 16920 (B, lost); 18958 (B, lost; AD, AMES, BO, E, G, K, L 2x).
  • Latourea muscifera (Schltr.) Brieger, in Schltr., Orchideen, ed. 3, I/A (1981) 727 (nom. illeg.).
  • Latourorchis muscifera (Schltr.) Brieger, in Schltr., Orchideen, ed. 3, I/A (1981) 727.
  • Sayeria muscifera (Schltr.) Rauschert, Feddes Repert. 94 (1983) 467.
  • Latourea macrophylla (A.Rich.) Brieger, in Schltr., Orchideen, ed. 3, I/A (1981) 727.
  • Latourorchis macrophylla (A.Rich.) Brieger, in Schltr., Orchideen, ed. 3, I/A (1981) 727.
  • Sayeria macrophylla (A.Rich.) Rauschert, Feddes Repert. 94 (1983) 467.
  • Dendrobium setigerum Ames ex M.A.Clem., Austral. Orchid Res. 64: 7 (1999-2000 publ. 1999).

A medium-sized to large epiphytic herb. Pseudobulbs clustered, clavate or subclavate, rarely fusiform, up to 50 cm tall rarely more, 1.4-3 cm diam., drying yellow, 4-6-noded below leaves, (2-)3 (rarely more)-leaved. Leaves suberect, coriaceous, oblong or oblong-elliptic, obtuse, 15-31 by 3.3-9 cm, lowermost leaf often 1-3 cm below nearest leaf. Inflorescences erect, terminal, up to 40 cm long, often densely many-flowered; bracts lanceolate, acute, 1.5-2.5 cm long. Flowers rather variable in size; pedicel and ovary setosely hairy, 2.5-4 cm long. Sepals setose on outer surface; dorsal sepal oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, 2.1-2.6 by 0.7-1 cm; lateral sepals obliquely triangular, acute or acuminate, 2.3-2.6 by 1.2-1.4 gym; mentum obliquely conical, 1 cm long. Petals oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, acute, 1.8-2.2 by 0.8-1.1 cm, with somewhat undulate margin. Lip 3-lobed, strongly recurved, 1-2 by 1.6-2.7 cm; side-lobes erect, subquadrate-flabellate, dilated above, truncate; midlobe transversely oblong, apiculate, conduplicate; callus obscurely 3-ridged, raised 2 mm at apex. Column short, 3 mm long, with two hook-like apical appendages at apex; foot 1 cm long.
(after Cribb, 1983).

(after Cribb, 1983).

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. var. subvelutinum J.J.Sm., Nova Guinea 8 (1911) 552.

Differs from the typical variety in that the outside of the sepals, ovary and pedicel are very shortly subvelvety muricate rather than setose.
(after Cribb, 1983).

(after Cribb, 1983).


Flowers yellow or greenish with purple stripes on lip side-lobes and spots or stripes on midlobe ; callus white.
Flowers yellow or greenish with purple stripes on lip side-lobes and spots or stripes on midlobe ; callus white.

Epiphyte in forests, also lithophytic. Altitude 0 to 1700 m.
Epiphyte in coastal forest. Altitude 40 m.

Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, the Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, Palau Islands, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji and Samoa.
New Guinea.

Papua and Papua New Guinea, widespread.
Papua (Jayapura area); Papua New Guinea (uncommon, fide O'Byrne).

Warm to intermediate growing epiphyte. Prefers a bright to lightly shaded position and humid conditions throughout the year.

Throughout the year.
December.

  • Smith, J.J. 1905. Orchid. Java: 347.
  • van Bodegom, J. 1973. Enige orchideeën van West Nieuw Guinea: 78.
  • Chadim, V.A. 1972. Orchadian 4: 26, fig.
  • Cribb, P.J. 1983. Kew Bull. 38: 247, fig. 1D, E, pl. 11A, B.
  • Lewis, B. & P.J. Cribb. 1991. Orchids of the Solomon Islands and Bougainville: 175, fig. 41 l-n, pl. 10C.
  • O'Byrne, P. 1994. Lowland Orchids of Papua New Guinea: 272, fig.

Dendrobium macrophyllum is the most widespread species in the section. It is also rather variable particularly in flower size and colouration, but is readily distinguished from all allied species with setose ovaries by its usually 3-leaved pseudobulbs, oblong-elliptic leaves, relatively narrow petals, the broad side-lobes of its lip, its conical mentum and the lack of a ligule on the column foot. In the closely allied Dendrobium polysema the flowers open more widely and the lip side-lobes always taper to a rounded apex, the petals are also usually reflexed in the open flower, and its pseudobulbs bear 2 broadly elliptic leaves.This variety differs from the typical variety only in lacking setae on the outside of the sepals, ovary and pedicel, these being replaced by much shorter somewhat papillate projections particularly dense upon the ovary.


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Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., flowers, various views, photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., plant habit, photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich.,inflorescence, photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., flower, front view, photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., flower, oblique front view, photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., flower, oblique lateral view , photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., flower, lateral view , photo Ed de Vogel, Leiden cult. 20031615 (Harris 1564) from Papua New Guinea, Gulf Prov.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

overview

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., local orchid collector near the Karawari River, PNG, photo A. Vogel

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., habit (in situ), photo A. Schuiteman

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., inflorescence, photo J. Meijvogel, based on Leiden cult. 31565

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, plant habit, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower detail, flower, front view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower detail, centre of flower, front view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower detail, column and callus, front view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower, lateral view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower detail, ovary, lateral view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, inflorescence, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower, front view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, plant habit, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower, front view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, plant habit, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara,inflorescence, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower, front view, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flower detail, indument on ovary and median sepal, cult John Cara, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. ("D. musciferum"), photo John Cara, inflorescence, cult. John Cara, from PNG

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. ("D. musciferum"), photo John Cara, flowers, front view, cult. John Cara, from PNG

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. ("D. musciferum"), photo John Cara, flower detail, centre of flower, front view, cult. John Cara, from PNG

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., photo John Cara, flowers, variation in colours and pattern of markings, front view, cult. John Cara, from PNG

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., colour pencil drawing John Cara, plant habit, flower analysis.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., drawing John Cara, plant habit and flower analyses.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., as Dendrobium gordonii S.Moore, drawing John Cara, plant habit, flower analysis.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium rigidifolium Rolfe, as Dendrobium musciferum Schltr., drawing John Cara, plant habit, flower analysis, from PNG.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich.as Dendrobium setigerum Ames ex M.A.Clem., drawing John Cara, plant habit and flower analysis.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. var. giganteum, drawing John Cara, flower analyses.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. var. subvelutinum, drawing John Cara, plant habit and flower analyses.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. complex, drawing John Cara, flower analyses.

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., drawing by S.P. Hillier in Kew Bull. 38 (1983) 244, fig. 1 D, E

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. (as Dendrobium musciferum Schltr.), drawing R. Schlechter in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 21 (1923) t. 167, fig. 625

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. var. subvelutinum J.J.Sm., drawing J.J. Smith, based on Gjellerup 401

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich. var. subvelutinum J.J.Sm., drawing J.J. Smith, based on Gjellerup 401

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., drawing J.J. Smith, based on Versteeg 1384

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., drawing J.J. Smith, based on Zippel 26

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium musciferum Schltr. (= Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich.), isosyntype specimen: Schlechter 18958 (L)

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium musciferum Schltr. (= Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich.), detail of isosyntype specimen: Schlechter 18958 (L)

Dendrobium macrophyllum

Dendrobium macrophyllum A.Rich., drawing John Cara, plant habit and flower analyses.